Pirard et al., 2005
This excerpt has been prepared by Mareen E. Hofmann in the context of
the ADAM "Meta-analysis of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (CCIVA)
assessments in Europe". Please note that the corresponding study was not
itself a part of the ADAM project!
Pirard, P.; Vandentorren, S.; Pascal, M.; Laaidi, K.;Le Tertre, A.; Cassadou, S.; Ledrans, M.: Summary of the mortality impact assessment of the 2003 heatwave in France. Eurosurveillance, 10: 153-156; 2005
You should take a look at this study if you are interested in:
economic sector: Health
environmental issue: Climate
One sentence summary:
The paper assesses the impacts of the 2003 heat wave in France, which lead to 14 800 excess deaths, and shows that there was a clear difference in these impacts between different cities.
type of study: Impact attribution
1. The 2003 heat wave in France and associated excess deaths
• The 2003 heat wave (between 2 and 15 August), which affected all French regions, lead to an excess of 14 800 deaths • Victims were mainly elderly women older than 75 years. • Deaths linked to heat were the most important during that time in terms of relative risk and contribution to the global toll.
Proposed adaptation options:
• In 2004, the French government developed a Heat Health Watch Warning System and implemented a preventive action plan for each region.
2. Differences between the impacts of the heat wave in various cities
• There was a clear discrepancy in the impact of the heat wave from city to city: the observed variability of the death incidences could not be explained by the effect of duration of consecutive days with high minimal temperatures and deviance with the seasonal normal temperature.
 "Heat-related deaths are apparent at relatively moderate temperatures (Huynen et al., 2001; Hajat et al., 2002; Keatinge, 2003; Hassi 2005; Paldy et al., 2005), but severe impacts occur during heatwaves (Kosatsky, 2005; Pirard et al. 2005; Kovats and Jendritzky, 2006; WHO, 2006; see also Section 12.6.1)."
quoted from IPCC AR4 II, p.557
Key future impacts and vulnerabilities Human health
 "Primary adaptation measures to heatwaves include the development of health early warning systems and preventive emergency plans (Garssen et al., 2005; Nogueira et al., 2005; Pirard et al., 2005)."
quoted from IPCC AR4 II, p.562
Adaptation: practices, options and constraints Human health
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